Ciclos del dióxido de carbono en la formación y utilización de combustibles fósiles y su efecto en el cambio climático
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Mondragón, F. (2021). Ciclos del dióxido de carbono en la formación y utilización de combustibles fósiles y su efecto en el cambio climático. RACCEFYN, 45(176), 833–849. https://doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.1364

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Resumen

El dióxido de carbono es una molécula que ha estado presente en la Tierra desde su formación hasta nuestros días y participa en los diferentes ciclos de transformación del carbono. El más importante es el asociado a la conversión de carbono inorgánico a carbono orgánico a través del proceso de fotosíntesis catalizado por la enzima rubisco, el cual permitió el origen de la vida en la Tierra y el almacenamiento de energía solar durante millones de años en lo que hoy llamamos combustibles fósiles. En esta revisión se presenta un breve recuento de los cambios en la concentración atmosférica del CO2 desde su formación hasta nuestros días. Además, se discute la formación y el estudio de las estructuras químicamente complejas que caracterizan algunos de los combustibles fósiles, así como los mecanismos químicos por los cuales se recupera la energía almacenada y se vuelve a generar CO2 al usar dichos combustibles. Se analizan asimismo las implicaciones del uso acelerado de estos recursos en los últimos 150 años, lo que ha llevado el sistema “tierra” a un aumento crítico de la temperatura, con la consecuente necesidad de acciones urgentes para que el incremento sea inferior a 1,5 oC con referencia a la época preindustrial, pues, de no hacerlo, ello tendría consecuencias catastróficas para la vida en la Tierra.

https://doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.1364

Palabras clave

Dióxido de carbono | Combustibles fósiles | Carbón | Impacto ambiental
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