La estructura genética de Pristimantis latro (Anura: Craugastoridae) refleja rasgos de su historia de vida
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Santana-Cornélio, G., Araújo-de-Oliveira, E., Magalhães-Xavier, K., Barros-da-Silva, G. W., Ribeiro Rodrigues, L. R., & Hernández-Ruz, E. J. (2020). La estructura genética de Pristimantis latro (Anura: Craugastoridae) refleja rasgos de su historia de vida. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Ex. Fis. Nat., 44(172), 729-739. Recuperado a partir de https://raccefyn.co/index.php/raccefyn/article/view/956

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Una de las principales hipótesis para explicar el origen de la diversidad amazónica invoca el efecto de barrera de los ríos para explicar los patrones de diversidad. Esa hipótesis propone que algunos ríos pueden separar poblaciones continuas conduciendo a la diferenciación y la especiación. En ese sentido nos propusimos estudiar la estructura genética de Pristimantis latro, una especie recién descrita que habita una región bajo fuerte presión antrópica producto de la ganadería expansiva, la minería ilegal y la construcción de represas hidroeléctricas. El ADN se extrajo de 52 individuos de P. latro y se amplificó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) usando los marcadores mitocondriales 16S rRNA y COI. Para inferir el tiempo de divergencia entre las localidades de P. latro, construimos un árbol de especies e hicimos análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA) para inferir la diferenciación genética entre y dentro de las poblaciones de P. latro. Encontramos que P. latro presenta una estructuración genética en las poblaciones de las márgenes derecha e izquierda del río Xingu y dentro de las regiones interfluviales deTapajós-Xingu y Xingu-Tocantins. Asimismo, el tiempo de divergencia entre las poblaciones de las márgenes derecha e izquierda del río Xingu aconteció hace aproximadamente 380.000 años. El patrón de estructura genética que se encontró se corresponde con el indicado en artículos recientes para el género Pristimantis, el cual revela que las especies sin renacuajos exhiben una estructura genética que responde a la hipótesis de los ríos como barreras.

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